Honors Chemistry

Chapter 14 Study Questions

 

1.  Fill in the following table:

[H+]

[OH]

pH

pOH

acid, base or neutral?

1.0 x 10-4 M

 

 

 

 

 

1.0 x 10-7 M

 

 

 

 

 

12.0

 

 

 

 

 

14.0

 

 

 

3.5

 

 

4.6 x 10-3 M

 

 

 

 

 

8.2 x 10-12 M

 

 

 

 

2.  For each of the following:  classify as acid or base, strong or weak, or amphoteric, and then write a balanced equation for its ionization in water:

a)  HNO3               b)  HF              c)  F-                d)  HSO3-                    e)  KOH

 

3.  Find the pH of the following solutions:

      a)  0.010 moles HCl in 10.0 liters water.

      b)  6.0 g NaOH dissolved in 15.0 liters water.

      c)  5.0 ml 0.40 M HBr diluted to 20.0 liters with water.

      d)  0.10 M solution of benzoic acid.

e)  0.20 M NaClO.

      f)  0.20 moles HCl plus 0.10 moles KOH dissolved in 1.0 liter water.

 

4.  The pH of a 0.10 M solution of H2CO3, carbonic acid, is 3.68.

      a)  Write an expression for the ionization of the first proton from carbonic acid.

      b)  Write an expression for Ka for carbonic acid.

      c)  Find the Ka of carbonic acid.

      d)  What is Kb for HCO3-?

 

5.  a)  Why is the acetate ion, CH3COO-, a base according to the Bronsted-Lowry model? 

      b)  What is the conjugate acid of CH3COO-?

      c)  Write a balanced equation in which CH3COO- acts as a base.

 

6.  Write a balanced net ionic equation for the reaction between solutions of HNO2 and KOH.  Which 2 species are acting as acids?  as bases?

 

7.  List the following acids in order of increasing strength:  HCl, HC2H3O2, HCN, HF.  List the following bases in order of increasing strength:  Cl-, C2H3O2-, CN-, F-.

 

8.  For each of the following solutions, indicate whether it is acidic, basic or neutral:

      a)  0.10 M NaOH              b)  0.10 M NH4NO3          c)  0.10 M KCl       d)  0.10 M NaF

 

 

Summary of Chapter 14:  Acids and Bases

 

properties of acids and bases

Bronsted-Lowry model

conjugate acid/base pairs

amphoteric substances

Kw:  relationship between [H+] and [OH]

definitions of pH and pOH

defining acids and bases in terms of pH, [H+], pOH, and [OH]

find pH from [H+] and [OH]

strong and weak acids and bases

ionization equations

Ka and Kb

     expressions for Ka and Kb

     relationship to strength of acid or base

     relationship between Ka and Kb

calculation of Ka or Kb from pH and concentration

calculation of pH from Ka or Kb and concentration

percent dissociation

acid-base properties of salt solutions