Honors Chemistry

Answers to Chapter 2 Study Questions

 

1. a)law of multiple proportions††††††††††††††††† b)law of conservation of mass

††††† c)law of definite proportion

 

2.Rutherfordís experiment supported the ideas that atoms contain a small dense center (nucleus) and are mostly empty space.

 

3. Nuclear†††††† Atomic††††††† Mass††††††† Number of††††† Number of††††† Number of†††††† Charge

††† Symbol†††††† Number†††† Number††††††† Protons†††††††† Electrons†††††††† Neutrons†††††††††††††††††††††

 

†††††† ††††††††__18__ †††††__40__††††† ___18____†††† ___18____††††† ____22___††††† ___0__

††

†††††† †††††††__19__††††††††† 39††††††††††††††† 19††††††††††††††††† 18†††††††††††† ____20___†††††† __+1__

 

†††††† ††††††††††††16†††††††† __36__ †††††___16____†††† ___18____†††††††††††† 20††††††††††††††† -2

 

4.†† ††and

 

5.a)MG, Group 2, metal, Period 5††††††††††††† b)MG, Group 17, nonmetal, Period 4

††††† c)TM, Period 5††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† d)MG, Group 15, nonmetal, Period 3

††††† e)MG, Group 13, metalloid, Period 2†††† f)ITM, Period 7

††††† g)MG, Group 14, metal, Period 5†††††††††† h)TM, Period 6

 

6.Group 1 = alkali metals; Group 2 = alkaline earth metals; Group 17 = halogens; Group 18 = noble gases.

 

7.Elements:O2, N2, Cl2, or any other diatomic element.Compounds:CO2, H2O, NH3, or any other covalent compound.

 

8.a)positive, +1†††††† b)positive, +2†††††† c)negative, -1††††† d)negative, -2†††† e)positive, +1

 

9.a)covalent, dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide†††† b)ionic, potassium oxide

††††† c)covalent, phosphorus trichloride††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† d)ionic, aluminum phosphate

††††† e)covalent, hydrochloric acid††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† f)ionic, ammonium fluoride

††††† g)ionic, lead(II) nitrite††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† h)covalent, sulfurous acid

 

10.a)calcium carbonate†††††††††††††††††† b)zinc sulfide††††††††††††††††††††††† c)copper(I) hydroxide

††††† d)magnesium perchlorate

 

11.a)K3PO4††††††††††††† b)(NH4)2SO4††††††††††††† c)Co(OH)2†††††††††††††††† d)FeN

 

12.a)PI3†††††††††††††††††† b)N2O5†††††††††††††††††††††† c)HClO3