Honors Chemistry

Final Exam Chapter Summaries

 

FIRST SEMESTER

 


Chapter 1:  Chemical Foundations

SI units:  meters, liters, grams

metric prefixes:  kilo, centi, milli, micro

precision & accuracy

percent accuracy error (formula)

random and systematic error

significant figures:  counting & in calculations

exponential notation

dimensional analysis (conversion factors)

density

classification of matter:  pure substances, mixtures, solutions, elements, compounds

physical & chemical changes

physical & chemical properties

 

Chapter 2:  Atoms, Molecules and Ions

atomic theory

Rutherford’s experiment

structure of atom

     nucleus

protons, electrons, neutrons

atomic number, mass number

isotopes

nuclear symbol

molecules & ions

periods & groups

regions of the Periodic Table:  main groups, transition metals, inner transition metals

noble gases, halogens, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals

metals, nonmetals, metalloids

ionic & covalent compounds

names of ionic compounds

names of binary covalent compounds

names of acids

formulas of compounds from name

 

Chapter 3:  Stoichiometry

atomic mass

molar mass (molecular mass)

moles

Avogadro's number

conversions:  # particles « moles « mass

percent composition (mass percent)

empirical formula

percent composition « formula

finding molecular formula from simplest formula and molar mass

formula from experimental data

percent composition conversions

writing and balancing chemical equations

     reactants, products, coefficients

types of chemical reactions

     composition, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement

mass/mole conversions in chemical reactions (stoichiometry)

limiting reactant, excess reactant

theoretical yield, experimental yield

percent yield

 

Chapter 4:  Chemical Reactions in Water Solutions

electrolytes & nonelectrolytes

strong vs. weak electrolytes

ionization equations

molarity

calculations involving molarity

      finding the molarity of a solution

      using molarity as a conversion factor

      solution preparation

      dilution:  V1 x M1  =  V2 x M2

precipitation reactions

      reading a solubility table

molecular equations

net ionic equations

stoichiometry of precipitation reactions

common strong & weak acids & bases

 

Chapter 7:  Atomic Structure & Periodicity

wavelength (l), frequency (n)

     ln  = c

atomic spectra

Bohr model of the hydrogen atom

ground state, excited states

quantum theory

electron clouds

orbitals

principle energy levels (n)

sublevels (s, p, d, f):  electron capacity and relative energies

possible values for 4 quantum numbers (n, l, ml, ms)

ground state electron configuration of atoms

abbreviated electron configurations

outer electron configuration

valence electrons

orbital diagrams

atomic radius

ionization energy

electron configuration & the Periodic Table

reactivity of elements & the Periodic Table

 

Chapter 8:  Bonding Concepts

valence electrons

ionic bonding

covalent bonding

electronegativity

dipoles

electron configuration of ions

sizes of ions

lone pairs of electrons, bonding pairs

Lewis structures

Octet rule

exceptions to Octet rule

resonance

formal charge

molecular geometry:  linear, tetrahedral, trigonal pyramid, bent, trigonal planar, trigonal bipyramid, octahedral, see-saw, T-shaped, square pyramid, square planar

polarity

 

Chapter 22:  Organic Chemistry

properties of organic compounds

saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons

alkanes, alkenes, alkynes

name alkanes

     prefixes for 1-10 carbons

draw structures

structural isomers         

aromatic hydrocarbons

functional groups

     alcohols

     carboxylic acids

            formic acid, acetic acid

     amines

     esters

     amides

condensation reactions (formation of esters and amides)

addition polymers

condensation polymers

     polyesters and polyamides

     homopolymers & copolymers

draw monomer from polymer and vice versa

polypeptides



SECOND SEMESTER

 


Chapter 6:  Thermochemistry

heat content = enthalpy

change in heat content (DH)

heat content diagrams

endothermic & exothermic processes

thermochemical equations

calorimetry:

    Q  =  c x m x DT

joules, calories

specific heat

DHf°, definition & use of table

Hess’ Law

complete combustion

DH/mole conversions

 

Chapter 5:  Gases

Kinetic-molecular theory

     pressure

            barometer, manometer

     temperature

absolute zero temperature

relationship between pressure, volume, temperature

     Boyle’s Law

     Charles’ Law

Ideal Gas Law

R = 0.08206 L atm/mol K

molar volume

STP

molar volume @ STP = 22.4 L

molar mass and density of a gas

gas stoichiometry

partial pressure

 

formulas:

Ptotal = Px  +  Py  + . . .

PV = nRT

d =

 

Chapter 10:  Liquids and Solids

Differences between gas, liquid, solid

sublimation

Relationship of interparticle forces and DHfus, DHvap, melting pt and boiling pt

vapor pressure

equilibrium vapor pressure of water as f(T)

relative humidity

dew point

boiling point

heating curve

critical temperature & pressure

phase diagrams

     triple point, critical point

Intermolecular forces: 

     London dispersion forces, dipole forces, hydrogen bonds

Properties of the following types of solids (conductivity, melting points, solubility):

     molecular, network covalent, ionic, metallic

 

Chapter 11:  Properties of Solutions

solute

solvent

concentration

     molarity

     mass percent

     mole fraction

     molality

conversions between concentration units

molecular and ionic solutes

nonpolar and polar solutes and solvents

hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances

electrolytes and nonelectrolytes

Saturated, supersaturated and unsaturated solutions

solubility and temperature

solubility and pressure

colligative properties

     vapor pressure lowering

     boiling point elevation

     freezing point depression

van’t Hoff factor

calculate number of moles, concentration or molar mass from freezing point

 

Chapter 12:  Chemical Kinetics

reaction rate

     definition

     average rate for a time interval

rate laws

     order

     calculation of order and k from

            concentration and rate

factors affecting rate (and why)

     concentrations of reactants, temperature, surface area, catalysts

reaction mechanisms

     elementary steps

     rate equations for single step reactions

     multistep reactions

     rate determining step

activation energy

     relation to temperature

     relation to rate

energy diagrams

activated complex (transition state)

catalysis

 

 

Chapter 13:  Equilibrium

definition of equilibrium

factors affecting equilibrium:  temperature

equilibrium constant, K

     expression for K from equation

     only gases and aqueous

     relate to extent of reaction

find K for a reaction from K of related reactions

Reaction quotient, Q, & its relationship to K

calculation of K from concentrations at equilibrium and vice versa

LeChatelier’s Principle

     statement of principle

     effect of adding or removing product or

            reactant

     effect of changing volume or pressure

     effect of changing temperature

relationship between temperature and K for endothermic and exothermic reactions

effect of changes on yield and rate

 

Chapter 14:  Acids and Bases

properties of acids and bases

Bronsted-Lowry model

conjugate acid/base pairs

amphoteric substances

Kw:  relationship between [H+] and [OH-]

definitions of pH and pOH

defining acids and bases in terms of pH, [H+], pOH, and [OH-]

find pH from [H+] and [OH-]

strong and weak acids and bases

ionization equations

Ka and Kb

     expressions for Ka and Kb

     relationship to strength of acid or base

     relationship between Ka and Kb

calculation of Ka or Kb from pH and concentration

calculation of pH from Ka or Kb and concentration

acid-base properties of salt solutions

 

Chapter 15:  Applications of Aqueous Equilibria

acid-base reactions

buffers

     how they work

     significance of pKa of buffer

Henderson-Hasselbach equation

calculations relating [A-]/[HA] to pH

how to prepare buffers

acid-base titrations

     equivalence point

     shape of titration curves

     relation of strength of acid or base to pH

            of equivalence point

pH indicators

     relevance of pKa of indicator

 

Chapter 16: 

Ksp

     expression for Ksp

     calculations of equilibrium

concentrations from Ksp and vice

versa

     relationship to extent of solubility

calculations of concentrations of ions that form precipitates

common ion effect

 

Chapter 4/18:  Electrochemistry

definitions from Chapter 4

     oxidation and reduction

     oxidizing and reducing agents

     oxidation number

     oxidation-reduction reactions

balancing oxidation-reduction reactions

voltaic cells

     anode and cathode

     direction of electron and ion flow

     porous barrier/salt bridge

standard reduction potentials

relationship to Eoox and Eored

applications of values for Eo:

     calculation of cell voltage (Eo)

     reaction spontaneity

     strength of oxidizing and reducing agents

electrolytic cells

 

Chapter 19:  Radioactivity

what makes elements radioactive

alpha emission

beta emission

nuclear equations

half-life

nuclear fission

     production of radioactive waste

     chain reaction

nuclear fusion