Honors Chemistry

Chapter 8 & 9 Study Questions

 

1.  Indicate the number of valence electrons in the following:

      a)  oxygen                                                  b)  Group 1

      c)  an element with an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s23p1

 

2.  List the following elements in order of increasing electronegativity:  O, Ge, C

 

3.  Choose the atom or ion in each set with the smallest atomic radius.

      a)  Li, Li+, H                                 b)  Na+, Cl, K+                       c)  F, O2-, F

 

4.  List at least 2 ions with each of the following electron configurations:

      a) 1s22s22p6           b) 1s22s22p63s23p6       c)  1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p6

 

5.  What is the term for two ions with the same electron configuration?

 

6.  Draw Lewis structures for the following compounds:  (Follow the Octet Rule.)

      a)  H2S       b)  Br2              c)  NH2F          d)  CH2I2          e)  CO32-          f)  SO32-

      g)  diphosphorus dichloride     h)  dinitrogen tetroxide          i)  C3H4Cl2       j)  C3H4

 

7.  Indicate the molecular geometry of compounds (a)-(d) in question 6.  For each of these compounds, indicate whether they are polar or nonpolar.

 

8.  Add hydrogen atoms and electrons in order to complete Lewis structures of the following compound:    C3H6O (acetone; nail polish remover)

 

 

 


9.Explain the basis of a covalent bond. What makes a bond polar? What makes a molecule polar?

 

10.  Which is a better predictor of chemical properties:  Period number or Group number?

 

11.  For each set below, indicate which bond would be the most polar:

      a)  C - F, N - F, or O - F                         b)  Si - F or C - F

 

12.  Indicate the molecular geometry of the following compounds (which disobey the octet rule):

      a) SF4                    b) XeF4                        c)  PF5                         d)  SeF6

 

13.  Indicate the hybridization of the following atoms:

      a)  C in CH2I2                     b)  C in CO2                 c)  Xe in XeF4 

d)  S in SF4                        e)  C in CO32-              f)  P in diphosphorus dichloride

 

14.  Indicate the number of sigma bonds and the number of pi bonds in the following molecules:

      a)  CH2I2                            b)  CO32-                     c)  CO2                        d)  CH3COCH3

 

 

Summary of Chapter 8:  Bonding Concepts

 

valence electrons

ionic bonding

covalent bonding

electronegativity

dipoles

electron configuration of ions

sizes of ions

lone pairs of electrons, bonding pairs

Lewis structures

Octet rule

exceptions to Octet rule

resonance

formal charge

molecular geometry:  linear, tetrahedral, trigonal pyramid, bent, trigonal planar, trigonal bipyramid, octahedral

polarity

 

 

Summary of Chapter 9:  Covalent Bonding:  Orbitals

 

orbital hybridization

sp3 hybridization

sp2 hybridization

sp hybridization

dsp3 hybridization

sp3d2 hybridization

sigma (s) bonds

pi (p) bonds