Chapter 8 & 9 Study Questions
1. Indicate the number of valence electrons in the following:
a) oxygen b) Group 1
c) an element with an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s23p1
2. List the following elements in order of increasing electronegativity: O, Ge, C
3. Choose the atom or ion in each set with the smallest atomic radius.
a) Li, Li+, H− b) Na+, Cl−, K+ c) F, O2-, F−
4. List at least 2 ions with each of the following electron configurations:
a) 1s22s22p6 b) 1s22s22p63s23p6 c) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p6
5. What is the term for two ions with the same electron configuration?
6. Draw Lewis structures for the following compounds: (Follow the Octet Rule.)
a) H2S b) Br2 c) NH2F d) CH2I2 e) CO32- f) SO32-
g) diphosphorus dichloride h) dinitrogen tetroxide i) C3H4Cl2 j) C3H4
7. Indicate the molecular geometry of compounds (a)-(d) in question 6. For each of these compounds, indicate whether they are polar or nonpolar.
8. Add hydrogen atoms and electrons in order to complete Lewis structures of the following compound: C3H6O (acetone; nail polish remover)
9.Explain the basis of a covalent bond. What makes a bond polar? What makes a molecule polar?
10. Which is a better predictor of chemical properties: Period number or Group number?
11. For each set below, indicate which bond would be the most polar:
a) C - F, N - F, or O - F b) Si - F or C - F
12. Indicate the molecular geometry of the following compounds (which disobey the octet rule):
a) SF4 b) XeF4 c) PF5 d) SeF6
13. Indicate the hybridization of the following atoms:
a) C in CH2I2 b) C in CO2 c) Xe in XeF4
d) S in SF4 e) C in CO32- f) P in diphosphorus dichloride
14. Indicate the number of sigma bonds and the number of pi bonds in the following molecules:
a) CH2I2 b) CO32- c) CO2 d) CH3COCH3
Summary of Chapter 8: Bonding Concepts
electron configuration of ions
sizes of ions
lone pairs of electrons, bonding pairs
exceptions to Octet rule
molecular geometry: linear, tetrahedral, trigonal pyramid, bent, trigonal planar, trigonal bipyramid, octahedral
Summary of Chapter 9: Covalent Bonding: Orbitals
sigma (s) bonds
pi (p) bonds