Final Examination Chapter Summaries




Chapter 2:  Matter


physical states:  solid, liquid, gas

physical & chemical properties

physical & chemical changes





pure substances

homogenous and heterogenous mixtures


separation of mixtures


Chapter 3:  Elements, Atoms, and Ions

element symbols

atomic theory

law of constant composition


atoms & molecules


chemical formulas

Rutherford’s experiment

structure of atom


protons, electrons, neutrons

atomic number

mass number


nuclear symbol

periods & groups

regions of the Periodic Table:  main groups, transition metals, inner transition metals

noble gases, halogens, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals

metals, nonmetals, metalloids

ionic & covalent compounds

diatomic molecules


formulas for ionic compounds


Chapter 4:  Nomenclature

naming ionic compounds

     Type I (no roman numeral)

     Type II (roman numeral)

naming binary covalent compounds

polyatomic ions

naming acids

writing formulas from names


Chapter 5: Measurements and Calculations

scientific notation

metric units:  gram, liter, meter

metric prefixes:  nano, micro, milli, centi, kilo

measuring devices:  balance, graduated cylinder

significant figures

     counting and in arithmetic

accuracy & precision

percent accuracy error

problem solving using conversion factors (dimensional analysis)

temperature conversions



Chapter 6:  Chemical Composition

atomic mass


Avogadro’s number

molar mass

calculations:  # particles « moles « mass

percent composition (mass percent)

empirical formula

molecular formula

percent composition « empirical formula

finding molecular formula from empirical formula and molar mass

empirical formula from experimental data


Chapter 7:  Introduction to Chemical Reactions

chemical reactions

chemical equations

reactants, products


writing and balancing chemical equations


Chapter 8: Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

predicting whether a reaction will occur

precipitation reactions

strong electrolytes

using a solubility table

predicting whether a precipitate occurs

writing equations for precipitation reactions

molecular equations

net ionic equations

acids, bases

acid-base reactions

common strong acids

common strong bases

double displacement reactions

     precipitation reactions

     acid-base reactions

oxidation-reduction reactions

     synthesis (combination)


     combustion reactions

     single replacement reactions


Chapter 9:  Chemical Quantities

interpreting balanced chemical equations

stoichiometric calculations:

mole and mass relationships between reactants and products

limiting reactant and excess reactant

theoretical yield

experimental yield

calculating percent yield


Chapter 10:  Energy

Potential and Kinetic Energy

Law of conservation of energy

1st and 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics


endothermic, exothermic

heat content diagrams

specific heat

calorimetry:  calculation of heat change from temperature change

     Q  =  s  ×  m  ×  DT

Heat content = enthalpy

change in heat content (DH)

thermochemical equations

DH/mole conversions

Hess’ Law

Fossil fuels



Chapter 11:  Modern Atomic Theory

wavelength, frequency and energy

atomic spectra

Bohr model of the hydrogen atom

ground state, excited states

quantum mechanics

electron clouds


principle energy levels (n)

sublevels (s, p, d, f):  electron capacity and relative energies

ground state electron configuration of atoms

electron configuration & the Periodic Table

abbreviated electron configurations

outer electron configuration

valence electrons

orbital diagrams

atomic radius

ionization energy




Chapter 12:  Chemical Bonding

chemical bonds

ionic bonds

covalent bonds

polar and nonpolar covalent bonds


bond polarity

dipole moment

electron configurations of ions

ion size

Lewis structures of atoms

Lewis structures of molecules

octet rule

lone pairs




Chapter 20:  Organic Chemistry

properties of organic compounds

saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons


name alkanes

            prefixes for 1-10 carbons

draw structures



alkenes, alkynes

reactions of alkanes and alkenes

aromatic hydrocarbons


functional groups

            alkyl, phenyl, alcohols, carboxylic acids, esters,

            amines, amides

formic acid & acetic acid

common names and formation of esters

addition polymers

condensation polymers

            polyesters and polyamides

draw monomer from polymer and vice versa


Chapter 13:  Gases

Kinetic-molecular theory


            barometer, manometer

            1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr


absolute zero temperature

     T(K)  =  T(°C) + 273

relationship between pressure, volume, temperature

     Boyle’s Law

     Charles’ Law

     Avogadro's Law

Ideal Gas Law

R = 0.0821 L atm/mol K

partial pressure

molar volume


molar volume @ STP = 22.4 L

gas stoichiometry

molar mass and density of a gas



Ptotal = Px  +  Py  + . . .

PV = nRT;  R = 0.0821 L atm/mol K

d =


Chapter 14:  Liquids and Solids

Differences between gas, liquid, solid

heating/cooling curve


intramolecular forces and intermolecular forces

Intermolecular forces: 

     London dispersion forces, dipole forces, hydrogen bonds

Relationship between interparticle forces and melting pt, boiling pt, vapor pressure

vapor pressure

equilibrium vapor pressure of water as f(T)

relative humidity

dew point

boiling point

Properties of the following types of solids (nature of particles, electrical conductivity, melting points, solubility, examples):  molecular, network covalent, ionic, metallic


Chapter 15:  Solutions




molecular and ionic solutes

like dissolves like

nonpolar vs. polar solutes and solvents

Saturated, supersaturated and unsaturated solutions

Using graph of solubility and temperature

solubility and temperature

solution composition

     mass percent


dilution:  V1 x M1 = V2 x M2

electrolytes and nonelectrolytes

solution stoichiometry

     volume x molarity = moles

neutralization reactions

electrolytes & nonelectrolytes

colligative properties

     vapor pressure lowering

     boiling point elevation

     freezing point depression

calculate number of moles, concentration or molar mass from freezing point

     DTf  =  1.86 x moles solute/kg water


Chapter 17:  Equilibrium

factors affecting rate (and why)

     concentrations of reactants, temperature, surface area, catalysts

activation energy

     relation to rate

energy diagrams


definition of equilibrium

factors affecting equilibrium:  temperature

equilibrium constant, K

     expression for K from equation

     only gases and aqueous

     relate to extent of reaction

calculation of K from concentrations at equilibrium and vice versa

LeChatelier’s Principle

     statement of principle

     effect of adding or removing product or reactant

     effect of changing volume or pressure

     effect of changing temperature

relationship between temperature and K for endothermic and exothermic reactions


     expression for Ksp

     calculations of equilibrium concentrations from Ksp and vice versa

     relationship to extent of solubility


Chapter 16:  Acids and Bases

properties of acids and bases

Arrhenius definition of acids and bases

Bronsted-Lowry model of acids and bases

conjugate acid/base pairs

strong and weak acids

the acid dissociation constant, Ka


     relationship to acid strength

amphoteric substances

Kw:  relationship between [H+] and [OH-]

definitions of pH and pOH

defining acids and bases in terms of pH, [H+], pOH, and [OH-]

find pH from [H+] and [OH-]

ionization (dissociation) equations for acids

acid-base equations



Chapter 18:  Oxidation-Reduction Reactions & Electrochemistry


     oxidation and reduction

     oxidizing and reducing agents

     oxidation state (number)

     oxidation-reduction reactions

balancing oxidation-reduction reactions

voltaic cells

     anode and cathode

     direction of electron and ion flow

     porous barrier/salt bridge

electrolytic cells


Chapter 19: Radioactivity and Nuclear Energy

what makes elements radioactive

alpha emission

beta emission

gamma emission

nuclear equations

band of stability

half-life (rate of decay)

nuclear fission

     nuclear equation

     production of radioactive waste

     chain reaction

nuclear fusion