Chemistry

Answers to Chapters 3 & 4 Study Questions

 

1.Rutherfordís experiment supported the ideas that atoms contain a small dense center (nucleus) and are mostly empty space.

 

2. Nuclear†††††† Atomic††††††† Mass††††††† Number of††††† Number of††††† Number of†††††† Charge

††† Symbol†††††† Number†††† Number††††††† Protons†††††††† Electrons†††††††† Neutrons†††††††††††††

 

†††††† ††††††††__18__††††† __40__††††† ___18____†††† ___18____††††† ____22___††††† ___0__

††

†††††† ††††††__19__††††††††† 39††††††††††††††† 19††††††††††††††††† 18†††††††††††† ____20___†††††† __+1__

 

†††††† ††††††††††††16†††††††† __36__††††† ___16____†††† ___18____†††††††††††† 20††††††††††††††† -2

 

3.†† ††and

 

4.a)MG, Group 2, metal, Period 5††††††††††††††† b)MG, Group 17, nonmetal, Period 4

††††† c)TM, Period 5††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† d)MG, Group 15, nonmetal, Period 3

††††† e)MG, Group 13, metalloid, Period 2††††††† f)ITM, Period 7

††††† g)MG, Group 14, metal, Period 5 h)TM, Period 6

 

5.Group 1 = alkali metals; Group 2 = alkaline earth metals; Group 17 = halogens; Group 18 = noble gases.

 

6.a)Elements made of molecules:O2, N2, Cl2, or any other diatomic element.

††††† b)Compounds made of molecules:CO2, H2O, NH3, or any other covalent compound.

††††† c)Compounds made of ions:NaCl, MgSO4, or any other ionic compound.

 

7.a)positive, +1††††††† b)positive, +2††††† c)negative, -1†††††† d)negative, -2†††††† e)positive, +1

 

8.a)covalent, dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide††††††††††† b)ionic, potassium oxide

††††† c)covalent, phosphorus trichloride†††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††† d)ionic, aluminum phosphate

††††† e)covalent, hydrochloric acid†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† f)ionic, ammonium fluoride

††††† g)ionic, lead(II) nitrite††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† h)covalent, sulfurous acid

 

9.a)calcium carbonate†††††††††††††††††††††† b)zinc sulfide†††††††††††††† c)copper(I) hydroxide

††††† d)magnesium perchlorate

 

10.a)K3PO4††††††††††††† b)(NH4)2SO4††††††††††††† c)Co(OH)2†††††††††††††††† d)FeN

 

11.a)PI3††††††††††††††††††† b)N2O5†††††††††††††††††††††† c)HClO3